Mexico

mexico.gif

Capital: Mexico City


Religion:
Majority are Roman Catholic.1980 to early 1990's a huge shift in religion in Mexico. You will see a lot of the Virgin of Guadalupe just as much as the Coca-Cola logo's. It is important to know Catholicism for many Mexicans. Throughout Mexico, there are churches, convents, pilgrimage sites, and shrines. A portion of Indigenous people follow Roman Catholicism. Peyo
te can sometimes be placed in spiritual ceremonies.

The Lady Of Guadalupe Cathedral
inside and bottom is outside.

images.jpg

84879-050-B6E33962.jpg



-Virgin of Guadalupe-

Our-Lady-of-Guadalupe-Print-C10055392.jpg



Language:

Official language is Spanish.
6% can speak 60 or more indigenous languages. As spanish people arrived to Mexico, they tried to keep Nahuatl the official language. From the end of 1600's to the 1700's the Spanish colonizers wanted to switch their language to spanish. During the 1990's, the mexican constitution amendment led acceptance for indigenous languages as national languages. Now Legal documents can be written in indigenous or spanish. The Nahuatl language, is a native tongue of the Aztecs. There are over a million Mexicans that can speak Nahuatl. Widespread indigenous languages include, Guarani, Quechua, and other Mayan languages. English is very well spoken if you live by the border and by American or British immigrants. Phillip two of Spain thought that Nahuatl should be the official language of New Spain. So that they can communicate with the Mexican and natives of the colony. In 1968 Charles the second, banned the use of any languages besides spanish, throughout the Mexican Empire. "Hispanization" became popular and Mexican colonizers no longer learned the indigenous languages. After independence the government made a educational system, Hispanization of the native populations.
This would h elp indigenous people become a better part of the Mexican nation. During the 19th century, the government wanted to prevent the loss of indigenous languag es. During the 20th century, kids could not speak indigenous languages at school or they would be punished. By the end of the 20th century, the percentage of indigenous speaking languages had dropped from 60% to 6%.
http://www.aboutmexico.net/mexico/languages.asp
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_Mexico

Indigenou s languages of Mexico
Language
Speakers
Nahuatl (Mexicano, Mexicanero, Nahuat, Nahual, Melatahtol)
1,376,026
Yucatec Maya (Maaya t'aan)
759,000
Mixtec (Tu'un sávi)
423,216
Zapotec (Biniz aa)
410,901
Tzeltal Maya (K'op o winik atel)
371,730
Tzotzil Maya (Batsil k'op)
329,937
Otomí (Hñä hñü)
239,850
Totonac (Tachihuiin)
230,930
Mazatec (Ha shuta enima)
206,559
Ch'ol (Mayan) (Winik)
185,299
Huastec (Téenek)
149,532
Chinantec (Tsa jujmí)
125,706
Mixe (Ayüük)
115,824
Mazahua (Jñatho)
111,840
Tarascan (P'urhépechas)
105,556
Tlapanec (Me'phaa)
98,573
Tarahumara (Rarámuri)
75,371
Amuzgo (Tzañcue)
43,761
Chatino (Cha'cña)
42,791
Tojolab'al (Tojolwinik otik)
43,169
Popoluca (Zoquean)(Tuncápxe)
54,004
Chontal de Tabasco (Yokot t'an)
43,850
Huichol (Wixárika)
35,724
Mayo (Yoreme)
32,702
Tepehuán (O'odham)
31,681
Trique (Tinujéi)
24,491
Cora (Naáyarite)
17,086
Popoloca (Oto-manguean)
18,926
Huave (Ikoods)
15,993
Cuicatec (Nduudu yu)
12,610
Yaqui (Yoreme)
14,162
Q'anjob'al
10,833
Tepehua (Hamasipini)
10,625
Pame (Xigüe)
9,768
Mam (Qyool)
8,739
Chontal de Oaxaca (Slijuala sihanuk)
5,534
Chuj
2,143
Tacuate (Mixtec de Santa María Zacatepec) (Tu'un Va'a)
2,067
Chichimeca jonaz (Úza)
1,987
Guarijío (Makurawe)
1,905
Chocho (Runixa ngiigua)
1,078
Pima Bajo (O'odham)
836
Q'eqchí (Q'eqchí)
835
Lacandón (Hach t'an)
731
Jakaltek (Poptí) (Abxubal)
584
Matlatzinca/Ocuilteco(Tlahuica)
522
Seri (Cmiique iitom)
518
Ixcatec
406
K'iche'
286
Kaqchikel
230
Paipai (Akwa'ala)
221
Cucapá (Es péi)
206
Mototzintleco (Qatok)
186
Kumiai (Ti'pai)
185
Pápago (Tohono O'odham)
153
Kikapú (Kikapooa)
144
Ixil
108
Cochimí (Laymón, mti'pá)
96
Kiliwa (Ko'lew)
55
Aguacatec
27

Ethnic groups:The largest ethnic group is Mestizos. The Mestizos are mixed with Spanish and Indian ancestors. Indigenous groups would be the next large ethnic groups. Indigenous population is more than 100,000.


Indigenous pe oples of Mexico
Group
Population
Speakers¹
Nahuatl (Nawatlaka)
2,445,969
1,659,029
(Yucatec) Maya (Maya’wiinik)
2,475,575
892,723
Zapotec (Binizaa)
777,253
505,992
Mixtec (Tu'un savi)
726,601
510,801
Otomí (Hñähñü)
646,875
327,319
Totonac (Tachiwin)
411,266
271,847
Tzotzil (Batzil k'op)
406,962
356,349
Tzeltal (K'op o winik atel)
384,074
336,448
Mazahua (Hñatho)
326,660
151,897
Mazateco (Ha shuta enima)
305,836
246,198
Huastec (Téenek)
296,447
173,233
Ch'ol (Winik)
220,978
189,599
Chinantec (Tsa jujmí)
201,201
152,711
Purépecha (P'urhépecha)
202,884
136,388
Mixe (Ayüükjä'äy)
168,935
135,316
Tlapanec (Me'phaa)
140,254
119,497
Tarahumara (Rarámuri)
121,835
87,721external image cinco_de_mayo.jpg
external image cinco_de_mayo.jpg

Food:

Spain brought pork, lamb, beef, wine, vinegar and cheese to Mexico. All of these foods have integrated in the Mexican traditional foods. Chocolate, peanuts, vanilla, beans, coconuts and tomatoes, these elements make tasteful meals. Many techniques and products in Mexico came from South America, the Caribbean and even Africa. Many different places. Corn, an important ingredient in Mexican food. Mexicans learned to cook every me al with corn. Corn is used in many varieties even candy.
mexican-food.jpg
A blend of flavors and recipes from the Mexicans, is called Tex-Mex food. It's not quite Texas food and Mexican food. A lot of mexican food has been brought to America, such as enchiladas, tacos and burritos to many gourmet creations. Corn flour is the main involvement in preparation for mexican foods. A huge ingredient would be the Chili. The chili is a very hot spice. It is the main component in hot sauce. Mexican candy is not just a sweet. It is also a art. In holidays like the day of the dead, the candy is shaped like a skull.278_00_2.jpgDay Of the Dead candy skulls.
churros.jpgchurros.
vanilla-flan-ck-520239-l.jpgFlan Dessert
images-1.jpgRed hot chili pepper.



Gift Giving:
Flowers and sweets. Not marigolds because they can symbolize death. White flowers, considered uplifting. Gifts are opened immediately.

Customs: Greeting people: Women greet with hugs. Men shake hands with people they know. Mexicans often are very close to there friends and call them brother or sister. hermano/hermana de alma — soul brother/sister.

Holidays:

Cinco De Mayo

cinco-de-mayo-2.jpg

cinco_de_mayo.jpg

Cinco de mayo, The 5th

of May. The victory of the militia over the French. Hugely celebrated in Puebla.


Altar for the Day Of the Dead
day-of-the-dead-mexico-city-metro-altar2-1024x768.jpgimages.jpg
The day of the dead, Día de los Muertos a celebration between life and death. All souls day. They have a huge celebration to remember the dead.
They put altars up and a picture of the dead relative. They decorate the altars with candies, flowers, petals, and lots more. Oct.31st relatives clean and decorate altars. Nov.1st and 2nd is Día
de los Muertos.

Carnival: A five-day celebration beginning the weekend before Lent. Food, music, dancing.

Dia de Reyes - Kings Day,
This the day where the three wise men brought presents for baby Jesus.
Many kids are very anxious to wait for this day. As they wake up in the morning they get lots of presents and gifts. Rosca de Reyes is a special bread sweet they like to eat on this day. In this special sweet, sometimes you will find a tiny figurine of baby jesus, baked inside. The person who finds this, gets to host a party on Dia De Candelaria or Candlemas celebrated on Feb.2nd.
dia_de_reyes.jpgThree Kings.
rosca_reyes.jpg Rosca de Reye.
rosca.jpgRosca. Baby Jesus.
Fashion:
In major cities many mexicans wear the usually day to day clothing we wear in america. A bright shirt, jeans, and sneakers. In small towns, you might notice a native clothing look. Textures, and color. They where a lot of earth colors. Uncommon are dark greens and yellow. They make clothing out of agave, bark, and cotton. Silk and wool came to the mexicans from the Spanish. Most clothing dye came from local plants until analine dyes. Analine dyes were the first choice to use when it was brought down from Europe.
A typical women clothing would be a skirt, blouse, and shawls. Men choice of clothing would be shirts and trousers. They also like to throw on a blanket like cape called, "Sarape". In many holidays they wear different outfits. For the Day of the Dead, they like to dress up in costumes and masks. For the Carnival, they dress in suits called "Charro's".sarapes.jpg
Sarapes.


Music:
Mexican music has been mixed with Ameridian and European influences. Were not sure on what the Mayans had used for instruments but people had found maracas, and drums. For the Aztecs, cantares, and hymns. Cantares were used for battles, and hymns for great deeds. In the early 1500's Cortez brought with him spanish music. In the 1800's European music started to come in, polka and waltz. “mariachi” comes from the Mayan and Aztec words for dancers on a wooden stage. Now it is a band with eight people. Violins, guitars, and trumpets. Boys dress as cowboy costumes, and wide brimmed hats.
Jarocho is a traditional mexican music. Comes from the state Veracruz. Cuban, African, and Creole influences. Many play with a harp. example:“La Bamba,” the 1950s Latin rock hit sung by Richie Valens. Jalescenses are known for country, love, and patriotism. corridos often tell the tale of mexican life events, bad or good. 1950's, american and mexican rock songs, and American pop. 1971 hip hop and heavy metal. jarocho1.jpg
Jarocho.





Surface Culture:
Sopa de pollo.(dish) Cinco de mayo.

Deep Culture:
Catholic. Mexican. English & Spanish.

Stereotypes?
- Accent, and language.
-If they travel to America, or other countries they can develop other languages, gestures, and maybe accents too.

How do Outside influences affect spread into the culture?
-Mexico has many historic places. Beautiful cathedrals and church's. Attractions, Music, food, can bring outsiders to Mexico. Spanish Cortex brought spanish music, European, Mayan, Aztec instruments came through Mexico.

Physical Geography can affect the culture.
If weather was cold, they wouldn't celebrate as hugely as they do normally with holidays like the Day of the Dead.

Vanilla beans wholesale